Sustained high blood pressure is known as hypertension.
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood on the walls of the vessels.
Normal BP is 120/80 mmhg
In Hypertension BP > 130/90
i. Grade 1 hypertension: Also called Mild hypertension
Systolic BP = 130-140 mmhg Diastolic BP = 85-90 mmhg
ii. Grade 2 hypertension: Also called Moderate hypertension
Systolic BP = 140-160 mmhg Diastolic BP = 90-95 mmhg
iii. Grade 3 hypertension: Also called Severe hypertension
Systolic BP = 160-180 mmhg Diastolic BP = 95-100 mmhg
iv. Grade 4 hypertension: Also called Malignant hypertension
Systolic BP >180mmhg Diastolic BP > 110mmhg
Primary /Essential/ Ideopathic Hypertension:
In about 95% cases no cause of hypertension can be identified and the form of hypertensionis called primary or essential hypertension.
In about 5% cases, cause of hypertension can be discovered and the form of hypertension is called secondary hypertension.
Causes of secondary hypertension:
Ø Renal and renovascular diseases:
o Chronic renal failure
Ø Endocrine disease:
o Cushing’s syndrome
o Conn’s syndrome
Oral contraceptive containing estrogens, NSAIDs and sympathomimetic agents
Ø Alcohol consumption (chronic)
Ø Coarctation of aorta ( localized narrowing of aorta)